Karl Marx was born in 1818 in Trier, Germany and studied in Bonn and Berlin. Influenced by Hegel, he later reacted against idealist philosophy and began to develop his own theory of historical materialism. He related the state of society to its economic foundations and mode of production, and recommended armed revolution on the part of the proletariat. Together with Engels, who he met in Paris, he wrote the Manifesto of the Communist Party. He lived in England as a refugee until his death in 1888, after participating in an unsuccessful revolution in Germany. Ernst Mandel was a member of the Belgian TUV from 1954 to 1963 and was chosen for the annual Alfred Marshall Lectures by Cambridge University in 1978. He died in 1995 and the Guardian described him as 'one of the most creative and independent-minded revolutionary Marxist thinkers of the post-war world.'
Capital Introduction by Ernest Mandel Translator's Preface Preface to the First Edition Postface to the Second Edition Preface to the French Edition Postface to the French Edition Preface to the Third Edition (by Engels) Preface to the English Edition (by Engels) Preface to the Fourth Edition (by Engels) BOOK I: THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION OF CAPITAL Part One: Commodities and Money Chapter 1: The Commodity 1. The Two Factors of the Commodity: Use-Value and Value (Substance of VAlue, Magnitude of Value) 2. The Dual Character of the Labour Embodied in Commodities 3. The Value-Form, or Exchange-Value (a) The Simple, Isolated, or Accidental Form of Value (1) The two poles of the expression of value: the relative form of value and the equivalent form (2) The relative form of value (i) The content of the relative form of value (ii) The quantitative determinacy of the relative form of value (iii) The equivalent form (iv) The simple form of value considered as a whole (b) The Total or Expanded Form of Value (1) The expanded relative form of value (2) The particular equivalent form (3) Defects of the total or expanded form of value (c) The General Form of Value (1) The changed character of the form of value (2) The development of the relative and equivalent forms of value: their interdependence (3) The transition from the general form of value to the money form (d) The Money Form 4. The Fetishism of the Commodity and Its Secret Chapter 2: The Process of Exchange Chapter 3: Money, or the Circulation of Commodities 1. The Measure of Values 2. The Means of Circulation (a) The Metamorphosis of Commodities (b) The Circulation of Money (c) Coin. The Symbol of Value 3. Money (a) Hoarding (b) Means of Payment (c) World Money PART TWO: THE TRANSFORMATION OF MONEY INTO CAPITAL Chapter 4: The General Formula for Capital Chapter 5: Contradictions in the General Formula Chapter 6: The Sale and Purchase of Labour-Power PART THREE: THE PRODUCTION OF ABSOLUTE SURPLUS-VALUE Chapter 7: The Labour Process and the Valorization Process 1. The Labour Process 2. The Valorization Process Chapter 8: Constant Capital and Variable Capital Chapter 9: The Rate of Surplus-Value 1. The Degree of Exploitation of Labour-Power 2. The Representation of the Value of the Product by Corresponding Proportional Parts of the Product 3. Senior's "Last Hour" 4. The Surplus Product Chapter 10: The Working Day 1. The Limits of the Working Day 2. The Voracious Appetite for Surplus Labour. Manufacturer and Boyar 3. Branches of English Industry without Legal Limits to Exploitation 4. Day Work and Night Work. The Shift System 5. The Struggle for a Normal Working Day. Laws for the Compulsory Extension of the Working Day, from the Middle of the Fourteenth to the End of the Seventeenth Century 6. The Struggle for a Normal Working Day. Laws for the Compulsory Limitation of Working Hours. The English Factory Legislation of 1833-64 7. The Struggle for a Normal Working Day. Impact of the English Factory Legislation on Other Countries Chapter 11: The Rate and Mass of Surplus-Value PART FOUR: THE PRODUCTION OF RELATIVE SURPLUS-VALUE Chapter 12: The Concept of Relative Surplus-Value Chapter 13: Co-operation Chapter 14: The Division of Labour and Manufacture 1. The Dual Origin of Manufacture 2. The Specialized Worker and His Tools 3. The Two Fundamental Forms of Manufacture - Heterogeneous and Organic 4. The Division of Labour in Manufacture, and the Division of Labour in Society 5. The Capitalist Character of Manufacture Chapter 15: Machinery and Large-Scale Industry 1. The Development of Machinery 2. The Value Transferred by the Machinery to the Product 3. The Most Immediate Effects of Machine Production on the Worker (a) Appropriation of Supplementary Labour-Power by Capital. The Employment of Women and Children (b) The Prolongation of the Working Day (c) Intensification of Labour 4. The Factory 5. The Struggle between Worker and Machi