A Complex Relationship. Third revised and expanded edition
Serge Brochu, Ph.D. Psychology, is Full Professor at Universite de Montreal's Ecole de criminologie, Honorary President of the International Society for Criminology, and President of the Association des intervenants en dependance du Quebec (AIDQ). He is a researcher at the Groupe de recherche et intervention sur les substances psychoactives-Quebec (RISQ) and at the Centre international de criminologie comparee (CICC). He is also the scientific director of the Institut universitaire sur les dependances (IUD).
List of Figures and Tables Acknowledgments INTRODUCTION Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada Drug Use and Criminal Behaviour CHAPTER 1 Links Between Drugs and Crime in Facts and Figures Youth Adults Justice-involved Individuals Drugs in Prison Substance-dependent Individuals CHAPTER 2 Drugs: A Detailed Criminogenic Profile Selected Important Definitions Intoxication and Criminal Behaviour Cannabinoids Stimulants Cocaine Amphetamine-type Stimulants Benzodiazepines Heroin and Other Opioids Hallucinogens Drug Interactions Victimization While Under the Influence of a Psychoactive Substance The Role of Intoxication Dependence and Criminal Behaviour How Users Support Their Habit Crime as an Income-generating Activity Acquisitive Crime Trafficking Other Lucrative Criminal Activities Links Between Dependence and Criminal Activity CHAPTER 3 The Legal and Political Landscape The Road to Repression Globalization of Trade Prohibition The War on Drugs Action Against Drug Producers Action Against Drug Importers and Distributors Action Against Users Europe The Netherlands Portugal The Americas The United States Uruguay Canada Different Concepts and Approaches Normalizing the Relationship With Users CHAPTER 4 Proximal and Distal Models: A Static Conceptualization Proximal Elements Goldstein's Tripartite Model The Psychopharmacological Model The Economic-Compulsive Model The Systemic Model Non-Mutually Exclusive Types of Crime The Inverse Proximal Model Distal Elements CHAPTER 5 Trajectories: A Dynamic Conceptualization The Evolving Drug-Crime Relationship Deviant Trajectories Experimentation and Occasional Use Frequent Use Regular Use Addiction Factors That Influence the Progression and Maintenance of Deviant Trajectories The Substance Itself Income Environment Traumatic Events Reduction, Cessation, and Interruption Peer Pressure Internal Pressure Organizational Pressure Deviant Environment Pressures Women's Distinctive Trajectory CHAPTER 6 Deviant Lifestyles: An Integrated Conceptualization The Integrative Model Risk Factors Deviant Lifestyles Degrees of Permeation Stages of Progression CHAPTER 7 Treating Addicts in the Criminal Justice System Access to Treatment Punishment or Rehabilitation? "Nothing Works" The Punitive Post-Martinson Era "What Works?" Treating Drug Dependence in Offenders Drug Courts Post-sentencing Treatment Cognitive-Behavioural Programs Therapeutic Communities and Boot Camps Peer Support and Twelve-Step Groups Methadone Maintenance Programs Motivational Interviewing Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Ingredients for Treatment Success Screening and Assessment Personalized Plans Relapse Prevention Motivation Judicial Pressure The Therapeutic Relationship Adequate Treatment Duration Aftercare Extension of Social Control The Real Client Boundaries and Bridges Conclusion The Drug-Crime Relationship Who? Why? What? How Can Society Intervene? Implementing Appropriate Policies Providing Suitable Care References Authors and Translator