Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Banks ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set of cases studies drawn from a diverse range of experiences across the Ugandan private sector and offers concrete policy recommendations on how to support broader development of STI in Uganda. The study finds that of all the STI challenges facing firms, universities, and public research organizations in Uganda, the barriers to collaboration and communication are the most urgent in terms of STI priorities to address in the coming years.