The Choice of Nonmammalian Models in Biomedical Studies. Protozoans as Models of Cellular Aging: The Cil-iates. Leeches: Annelids of Medical and Scientific Util-ity. Crustacean Urinary Bladder as a Model for Vertebrate Renal Proximal Tubule. Insect Models for Biomedical Re-search. Housefly Model for Organophosphate Poisoning. Fertilization in Ascidians. Sea Urchin Fertilization: A Versatile Model for Studying Signal Transduction, De-fenses Against Oxidant-Mediated Damage, and Extracellular Matrix Assembly. Elasmobranches (Sharks, Skates, and Rays) as Animal Models for Biomedical Research. Biomedi-cal Applications of Marine Animals. Nervous Control of Ventilation and Heart Rate in Elasmobranch Fish, A Model for the Study of the Central Neural Mechanisms Mediating Cardiorespiratory Interactions in Mammals. Use of Small Fish in Biomedical Research, with Special Reference to In-bred Strains of Medaka. Freshwater Fish in Research on Radiation Biology. The Goldfish Visual Pathway: Interme-diate Filament Proteins in Nerve Growth and Development. Amphibians: A Rich Source of Biological Diversity. Am-phibian Models in Endocrine Research. Reptile Models for Biomedical Research. Sulfydryl-Rich Hemoglobins in Rep-tiles: A Defense Against Reactive Oxygen Species. The Do-mestic Fowl as a Biomedical Research Animal. The Domestic Fowl as an Animal Model for Human Albinism. A Molecular, Evolutionary Perspective of Nonmammalian Models in Bio-logical Research. Ethical and Regulatory Considerations in the Use of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates in Biomedical Re-search. Index.