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Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work, 5th Editionav J Cherrie849
MONITORING FOR HEALTH HAZARDS AT WORK Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work remains the seminal textbook on measuring and controlling the risk of workplace exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards. Designed for students studying occupational hygiene and exposure science, this comprehensive and accessible volume provides step-by-step guidance on identifying hazards and quantifying their risks in various workplace environments. Complete with checklists and practical examples, the authors present clear explanations of all types of hazards that can arise in the workplace, including dust, particles, fibrous aerosols, gases, vapours, and bioaerosols. The fifth edition features revised material throughout, and remains an essential resource for students and professionals in occupational hygiene, reflecting global standards and recent developments in monitoring equipment, modelling methods, exposure assessment, and legislation on workplace safety. Several new or substantially revised chapters cover topics such as human biomonitoring, exposure modelling, hazardous substances, physical agents, evaluating ventilation, PPE, and other control measures Updated sections discuss the equipment currently available, the importance of risk communication, assessing dermal and inadvertent ingestion exposures, and more Examines common workplace comfort issues such as noise, vibration, heat and cold, and lighting Offers practical advice on conducting and presenting risk assessments and reports Discusses the future of the development and application of hazard measurement equipment and methods Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work, is required reading for students and professionals in occupational hygiene, environmental health and safety, occupational health and safety, and exposure science.
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John W. Cherrie is Emeritus Professor of Human Health, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. He is also a Principal Scientist at the Institute of Occupational Medicine, one of the longest-established independent occupational and environmental health research institutes in the world. Sean E. Semple is Associate Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, UK. His research in human exposure science focuses on the health effects of indoor air pollution, occupational epidemiology, air quality measurement, and workplace inhalation hazards. Marie A. Coggins is a Lecturer at the School of Physics and a member of the Centre for One Health at the Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. She is Academic Director for the NUI, Galway professional accredited BSc Environmental Health and Safety programme. The Exposure Science research group that she leads focuses on human exposure to occupational and environmental pollutants, including indoor air quality in energy efficient buildings.
List of Figures xviii Preface xxv Acknowledgements xxvii Units and Abbreviations xxviii Part 1 Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Occupational Hygiene and Risk Assessment 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Hazard and Risk 8 1.3 Risk Assessment 9 1.4 The Stages of a Risk Assessment 10 1.4.1 Identify the Hazard 10 1.4.2 Decide Who Might Be Affected and How 11 1.4.3 Evaluate the Risks 11 1.4.4 Take Preventative and Protective Measures 13 1.4.5 Record the Significant Findings 14 1.4.6 Review the Assessment Regularly and Revise It If Necessary 14 1.5 Who Should Carry Out Risk Assessment? 15 References and Further Reading 15 Chapter 2 Identifying Hazards 17 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Identifying Hazards 18 2.3 Example of Hazard Identification 20 2.4 Conclusions Arising from a Hazard Assessment 21 References and Further Reading 21 Chapter 3 Exposure, Exposure Routes and Exposure Pathways 23 3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 Exposure Routes 23 3.3 Exposure Pathways 26 3.4 Measuring Exposure 27 3.5 Biological Monitoring 28 3.6 Exposure Assessment: What the Legislation Requires 29 3.7 Conclusions 30 References and Further Reading 31 Chapter 4 The Exposure Context 32 4.1 Context for Measurement 32 4.2 Sources of Hazardous Substances 33 4.3 Dispersion Through the Workroom 34 4.4 Receptor 36 4.5 Jobs and Tasks 37 4.6 Conclusion 38 References and Further Reading 38 Chapter 5 Modelling Exposure 39 5.1 Introduction 39 5.2 Worst-Case Models 40 5.3 Control Banding and COSHH Essentials 42 5.3.1 Worked Example 44 5.4 Screening Tools Used for Regulation of Chemicals in Europe 46 5.4.1 ECETOC TRA 46 5.4.2 Stoffenmanager.nl 47 5.4.3 Worked Example 48 5.4.4 Overall Reliability of These Tools 49 5.5 The Advanced REACH Tool 49 5.5.1 Bayesian Statistics 49 5.5.2 The ART 50 5.5.3 Worked Example 51 5.6 Conclusions and Prospects 52 References and Further Reading 52 Chapter 6 Why Measure? 54 6.1 Introduction 54 6.2 Reasons for Undertaking Monitoring 54 6.2.1 To Support a Risk Assessment 54 6.2.2 To Assess Compliance with an OEL 55 6.2.3 To Make a Comparison with Existing Data 55 6.2.4 To Provide Baseline Information on the Exposure Distributions Within a Plant 56 6.2.5 Supporting Information for Registration Submissions Under the REACH Regulations 56 6.2.6 Containment Capability Studies 57 6.2.7 To Underpin a Research Study 58 References and Further Reading 58 Chapter 7 How to Carry Out a Survey 59 7.1 Introduction 59 7.2 Planning the Survey 59 7.3 Workplace Monitoring 61 7.4 Monitoring Strategies 63 7.5 Quality Assurance and Quality Control 66 References and Further Reading 68 Chapter 8 Analysis of Measurement Results 69 8.1 Introduction 69 8.2 Dealing with Variability in Measurement Results 69 8.3 Summary Statistics and Data Presentation 71 8.4 Testing Compliance 74 8.4.1 Worked Example 76 8.5 Other Software Tools to Aid Data Analysis 78 References and Further Reading 78 Chapter 9 Introduction to Control 80 9.1 Introduction 80 9.2 Specific Control Measures 81 9.2.1 Elimination 82 9.2.2 Substitution 82 9.2.3 Total Enclosure 83 9.2.4 Technological Solutions 84 9.2.5 Segregation 84 9.2.6 Partial Enclosure 85 9.2.7 Local Ventilation 85 9.2.8 General Ventilation 86 9.2.9 Personal Protective Equipment 87 9.3 The Effectiveness of Control Measures 87 References and Further Reading 88 Chapter 10 The Importance of Good Records and How to Write a Survey Report 89 10.1 Record, Educate and Influence 89 10.2 Measurement Records 90 10.3 Survey Reports 92 10.3.1 General Principles of Writing a Good Report 92 10.3.2 Report Structure 93 10.3.3 Common Pitfalls and Administrative Points 96 References and Further Reading 96 Chapter 11 Risk Assessment 98 11.1 Introduction 98 11.2 Identify All Hazardous Substances or Agents 100 11.3 Identify the Likely Levels of Exposure 100 11.4 Identify All Per