The 9th edition brings the book up to date on multiple fronts. The new edition adds the perspectives of two new authors (both established Federal Courts scholars) and includes two new Supreme Court decisions as principal cases. In addition, the edition incorporates references to dozens of new Supreme Court cases and lower court cases, and interrogates those developments in part through the lens of new books and articles cited in the Notes. The discussion of standing has been expanded to include circumstances in which courts act in the absence of adverse parties, and the discussion of qualified immunity has also been expanded. The new edition probes the history of Ex parte Young and the role of equity in providing a right to sue. It also treats the latest jurisdiction-stripping cases, habeas non-suspension developments, and the use of nominal damages to preserve civil rights litigation against claims of mootness.